Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

AUG 2017

Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News (GEN) is the world's most widely read biotech publication. It provides the R&D community with critical information on the tools, technologies, and trends that drive the biotech industry.

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4 | AUGUST 2017 | | Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News 140 Huguenot Street, New Rochelle, NY 10801- 5215 914 740 -2100 • PUBLISHER & CEO Mary Ann Liebert PRESIDENT, GEN Publishing Marianne Russell GEN GROUP PUBLISHER Sande Giaccone EVP, STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT Kevin Davies, Ph.D. EDITOR IN CHIEF John Sterling M A N AG I N G E D I TO R Randi Hernandez P R O D U C T I O N E D I TO R Robert M. Reis S E N I O R E D I TO R Kevin Mayer T E C H N I C A L E D I TO R Patricia F. Dimond, Ph.D. T E C H N I C A L E D I TO R Jeffrey S. Buguliskis, Ph.D. S E N I O R N E W S E D I TO R Alex Philippidis C H I E F CO PY E D I TO R Steven Hernacki A R T D I R E C TO R James Lambo COMMERCIAL DIREC TOR Bill Levine ONLINE COORDINATOR Katherine Vuksanaj O N L I N E P R O D U C T M A N AG E R Thomas Mathew W E B P R O D U C E R Melinda Kucsera S A L E S A D M I N I S T R ATO R Fallon Murphy GEN Editorial & Scientific Advisory Board Peter Banks, Ph.D., Scientific Director, BioTek Instruments; Roslyn Brandon, D.V.M., Ph.D., President and CEO, Immunexpress; Robert Clarke, Ph.D., President & CEO, Pulmatrix; Pete Gagnon, Project Director, Downstream Processing, Bioprocessing Technology Institute (Singapore); Uwe Gottschalk, Ph.D., CTO, Lonza Pharma & Biotech; Harry E. Gruber, M.D., CEO, Tocagen; Jin Seok Hur, Ph.D., Technology Director, Novasep; James Inglese, Ph.D., Principal Investigator, Division of Pre-Clinical Innovation, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences NIH; Guenter Jagschies, Senior Director, GE Healthcare Life Sciences; Peter Johnson, M.D., Principal, MedSurgPI; Anis H. Khimani, Ph.D., Head of Strategy & Marketing, Research Reagent Solutions, PerkinElmer; Mikael Kubista, Ph.D., Biotechnology Institute, Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic; Peter Levison, Senior Marketing Director, Downstream Processing, Pall Life Sciences; Jan Lichtenberg, Ph.D., CEO and Co-Founder, InSphero; Miodrag Micic, Sc.D., Ph.D., Professor and Department Chairman, Cerritos College; Eric Schadt, Ph.D., Director, Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology; Zhiwei Song, Ph.D., Scientist, National University of Singapore; Sumio Sugano, M.D., Ph.D., Professor, Medical Genomics, University of Tokyo; John Talley, Ph.D., CSO, SARmont; Bin Wang, Ph.D., Professor, Principal Investigator, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College; Daniel I. C. Wang, Ph.D., Institute Professor of Chemical Engineering, MIT Advertising United States and North America EAST COAST Monica Lieberman 914 740 2173 SF BAY AREA Sharon Spitz 314 795 4151 MIDWEST/S.EAST Rick Bongiovanni 330 998 9800 WEST COAST Catherine McConville 415 416 8970 U.K. and Europe Ian Slade +44 7768 397068 GEN Classified, Asia and Australia Display Victoria Palusevic 914 740 2167 All Other Countries 914 740 2200 Insertions and Advertising Material Wanda Sanchez Customer Service & Subscriptions 888 211 4235 847 559 7587 Reprints Karen Ballen 914 740 2100 The views, opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations set forth in any article in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News (GEN) are solely those of the authors of those articles and do not necessarily reflect the views, policy, or position of GEN, its Publisher, or its editorial staff and should not be attributed to any of them. All advertisements are subject to review by the Publisher. The acceptance of advertisements does not constitute an endorsement of the product or service advertised. Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News (ISSN-1935-472X) is published semimonthly except July, August, and December (twenty-one issues a year) by GEN Publishing, 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor, New Rochelle, NY 10801-5215. Periodicals postage paid at New Rochelle, NY and at additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send address changes to Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News, c/o Subscription Department, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor, New Rochelle, New York 10801-5215. Fax: 914 740-2201. Mailed in Canada under CPC CPM #40026674. Printed in the U.S.A. For subscription information go to: Copyright © 2017 by GEN Publishing, New Rochelle, NY. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. is recognized as a Certified Woman-Owned Business by the Women's Business Enterprise National Council (WBENC). As if it were ripped out of an M. Night Shyamalan script, researchers at the University of Wisconsin–Madison have recently identified secreted plant defense mechanisms that cause beet armyworm caterpillars to turn cannibalistic. Animals threaten plants, and to protect themselves, plants have evolved mechanisms that make the plant less "tasty," and in some cases, even toxic. When sprayed with substances that induce the release of these defenses, caterpillars took to cannibalism, the research- ers reported in Nature Ecology & Evolution, and their zeal was dose-dependent; cannibalism was more common when cater- pillars were exposed to plants that produced increased levels of the defensive chemicals. The more time they spent eating each other, the less time they spent eating the plants—which for the plants, is not a bad evolutionary survival strategy. Plant Defense Creates Cannibalistic Caterpillars Behavioral neuroscientists have identified changes in two brain regions in rats that may explain why some people make rational decisions, while others make impulsive and reckless choices. Alicia Izquierdo, Ph.D., of UCLA's Brain Research Institute, and her psychology graduate student Alexandra Stolyarova, assessed the ability of rats to work for rewards under stable and variable conditions. The results appeared in eLife. Rats earned sugar pellets after choosing between two images. When a rat touched one image, it received a sugar pellet at a predictable time, generally 10 seconds later. But when the rat touched the other image, it received a sugar pellet 5 to 15 seconds later. The rats detected the fluctuations in wait times. When wait times varied, the amount of gephyrin in the basolat- eral amygdala region doubled. When the rats experienced risk, GluN1 also increased significantly. Rats without a functional orbitofrontal cortex, however, treated each experience as a "reset" button, the researchers reported. "I think the experience of uncertainty is making these changes occur in these brain regions," Dr. Izquierdo said. While it's common knowledge that snakes shed their skin, and are considered a universal symbol of regeneration, their methods of regenerating internal organs are less known. A team of researchers at University of Texas at Arlington has been examining the genomic history of Burmese pythons, using one of the world's leading centers for computational discovery. Their findings were recently published in BMC Genomics. A focus of the team's research was determining how snakes can regenerate their internal organs after prolonged periods of fasting. After a post-fast feed, some snakes can achieve a 44-fold increase in metabolic rate, and major-organ mass can increase 40–100% (including heart, liver, kidney, and small intestines). The researchers identified 1,700 genes that showed differences during fasting and after organ regeneration. Using computer analysis, the team found a few key sets of genes that initiate a cascading effect among the affected genes. Sticky Ends ... Responses to Uncertainty in Rat Brains May Shed Light on Human Decision-Making Diana Lynne / Getty Images Snake Organ Regeneration Research

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