Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News

SEP15 2017

Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News (GEN) is the world's most widely read biotech publication. It provides the R&D community with critical information on the tools, technologies, and trends that drive the biotech industry.

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4 | SEPTEMBER 15, 2017 | | Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News USDA-ARS Daniel Kronauer The Rockefeller University Eau de Pathogen Ever wonder what sexy smells cause fruit flies to get "frisky" with each other? Well, if you happen to be a member of the microbial species Pseudomonas entomophila—which, if you are, I'm not really sure how you're reading this—then you al- ready know what Drosophila sex smells like and you exploit it at every opportunity. A recent study in Nature Commu- nications describes how the microbial pathogen alters the social communication systems of Drosophila melanogaster by causing the insects to dramatically increase various fly odors, in particular, the pheromones methyl laurate, methyl myristate, and methyl palmitate. This increased pheromone production attracts healthy flies to sick and dead ones, caus- ing infection in the healthy flies—ultimately expanding the dispersion. The smell of death and dying in the insect world is apparently not always off-putting. 140 Huguenot Street, New Rochelle, NY 10801- 5215 914 740 -2100 • PUBLISHER & CEO Mary Ann Liebert PRESIDENT, GEN Publishing Marianne Russell GEN GROUP PUBLISHER Sande Giaccone EVP, STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT Kevin Davies, Ph.D. EDITOR IN CHIEF John Sterling M A N AG I N G E D I TO R Randi Hernandez P R O D U C T I O N E D I TO R Robert M. Reis S E N I O R E D I TO R Kevin Mayer T E C H N I C A L E D I TO R Patricia F. Dimond, Ph.D. T E C H N I C A L E D I TO R Jeffrey S. Buguliskis, Ph.D. S E N I O R N E W S E D I TO R Alex Philippidis C H I E F CO PY E D I TO R Steven Hernacki A R T D I R E C TO R James Lambo COMMERCIAL DIREC TOR Bill Levine ONLINE EDITORIAL SUPERVISOR Katherine Vuksanaj O N L I N E P R O D U C T M A N AG E R Thomas Mathew W E B P R O D U C E R Melinda Kucsera S A L E S A D M I N I S T R ATO R Fallon Murphy GEN Editorial & Scientific Advisory Board Peter Banks, Ph.D., Scientific Director, BioTek Instruments; Roslyn Brandon, D.V.M., Ph.D., President and CEO, Immunexpress; Robert Clarke, Ph.D., President & CEO, Pulmatrix; Pete Gagnon, Project Director, Downstream Processing, Bioprocessing Technology Institute (Singapore); Uwe Gottschalk, Ph.D., CTO, Lonza Pharma & Biotech; Harry E. Gruber, M.D., CEO, Tocagen; Jin Seok Hur, Ph.D., Technology Director, Novasep; James Inglese, Ph.D., Principal Investigator, Division of Pre-Clinical Innovation, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences NIH; Guenter Jagschies, Senior Director, GE Healthcare Life Sciences; Peter Johnson, M.D., Principal, MedSurgPI; Anis H. Khimani, Ph.D., Head of Strategy & Marketing, Research Reagent Solutions, PerkinElmer; Mikael Kubista, Ph.D., Biotechnology Institute, Academy of Sciences, Czech Republic; Peter Levison, Senior Marketing Director, Downstream Processing, Pall Life Sciences; Jan Lichtenberg, Ph.D., CEO and Co-Founder, InSphero; Miodrag Micic, Sc.D., Ph.D., Professor and Department Chairman, Cerritos College; Eric Schadt, Ph.D., Director, Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology; Zhiwei Song, Ph.D., Scientist, National University of Singapore; Sumio Sugano, M.D., Ph.D., Professor, Medical Genomics, University of Tokyo; John Talley, Ph.D., CSO, SARmont; Bin Wang, Ph.D., Professor, Principal Investigator, Fudan University Shanghai Medical College; Daniel I. C. Wang, Ph.D., Institute Professor of Chemical Engineering, MIT Advertising United States and North America EAST COAST Monica Lieberman 914 740 2173 SF BAY AREA Sharon Spitz 314 795 4151 MIDWEST/S.EAST Rick Bongiovanni 330 998 9800 WEST COAST Catherine McConville 415 416 8970 U.K. and Europe Ian Slade +44 7768 397068 GEN Classified, Asia and Australia Display Victoria Palusevic 914 740 2167 All Other Countries 914 740 2200 Insertions and Advertising Material Wanda Sanchez Customer Service & Subscriptions 888 211 4235 847 559 7587 Reprints Karen Ballen 914 740 2100 The views, opinions, findings, conclusions, and recommendations set forth in any article in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News (GEN) are solely those of the authors of those articles and do not necessarily reflect the views, policy, or position of GEN, its Publisher, or its editorial staff and should not be attributed to any of them. All advertisements are subject to review by the Publisher. The acceptance of advertisements does not constitute an endorsement of the product or service advertised. Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News (ISSN-1935-472X) is published semimonthly except July, August, and December (twenty-one issues a year) by GEN Publishing, 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor, New Rochelle, NY 10801-5215. Periodicals postage paid at New Rochelle, NY and at additional mailing offices. Postmaster: Send address changes to Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News, c/o Subscription Department, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., 140 Huguenot Street, 3rd Floor, New Rochelle, New York 10801-5215. Fax: 914 740-2201. Mailed in Canada under CPC CPM #40026674. Printed in the U.S.A. For subscription information go to: Copyright © 2017 by GEN Publishing, New Rochelle, NY. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. is recognized as a Certified Woman-Owned Business by the Women's Business Enterprise National Council (WBENC). The parasite Cystoisospora suis causes diarrhea in pigs, especially in newborn piglets, and is capable of quickly spreading across farms. For this reason, pig farmers in Europe preventively use toltrazuril to control parasite development. In contrast to con- generic parasites in chicken, no resistance to this pharmaceutical compound was described in pig parasites until recently. In an article in Parasites & Vectors, researchers of the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria, have now for the first time confirmed that toltrazuril is ineffective against a Dutch isolate of the parasite. Even though antiparasitic resistance in pig para- sites is developing slowly, monitoring of resistance should be intensified due to the lack of alternative treatment options, and increased hygiene measures should be taken to prevent pathogen spread. Drug Resistance in Piglet Intestinal Parasite Confirmed for First Time Two teams of researchers used CRISPR technology to alter the germline of Ooceraea biroi (Clonal Raider Ants) and Harpegnathos saltator (Indian Jumping Ants). According to findings published in Cell, they used gene editing to alter eggs of both of those species in particular due to their special propensity for rapid dissemination of genes: the Raiders be- cause they have no queens and reproduce by parthenogenic cloning, and the Jumping Ants because they have a biologi- cal mechanism for transforming workers into queens (this "pseudoqueen," by the way, is called a "gamergate"). The teams used CRISPR to knockout the gene responsible for ORCO (odorant receptor coreceptor), which also blocked the function of all 350 odorant receptors in the ants. This made the ants unable to detect the pheromone signals they nor- mally use for communication. The researchers observed that with this diminished capacity for social interaction, both spe- cies became asocial, began wandering out of the nest, and failed to hunt for food. Additionally, the knockout also greatly stunted the antennal lobe glomeruli of their brains—the part of the ant brain responsible for perceiving and processing olfactory cues. According to the researchers, the study has implications for disorders like schizophrenia and depression. Domesticated apples have an ancestry that can be traced back to Central Asia, where wild apples of a particular type, Malus sieversii, were picked up by travelers and carried up and down the Silk Road. Eventually, after many seed dis- persals, as well as many hybridization and selection events, thousands of apple varieties emerged. Exactly how they emerged is a matter of evolutionary history, one that came to be studied by scientists at the Boyce Thompson Institute. They generated an apple genome variation map by se- quencing and comparing the genomes of 117 diverse apple accessions. The map, reported in Nature Communications, suggests that the apple evolved along two main routes— one toward the firm, large varieties favored in the west, and one toward the soft, small-to-medium varieties favored in the east. Wherever it traveled, the apple grew sweeter. Sticky Ends ... The Ants Go Marching . . . or Not Michael Bernkopf / Vetmeduni Vienna How Do You Like Them Apple Genomes?

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